1. Top Glass or Protective Layer: The topmost layer of a solar panel serves as a protective barrier against external elements such as weather, debris, and UV radiation. Typically made of tempered glass or a similar transparent material, this layer is crucial for ensuring the durability and longevity of the solar panel. It allows sunlight to pass through while shielding the underlying components from damage, thereby maintaining the panel’s performance over time.
  2. Anti-Reflective Coating: Beneath the protective glass layer, many solar panels incorporate an anti-reflective coating to minimize light reflection and maximize light absorption. This coating helps to increase the amount of sunlight that reaches the photovoltaic cells, improving the overall efficiency of the panel. By reducing reflection losses, the anti-reflective coating enhances the panel’s ability to convert sunlight into electricity, especially under low-light conditions.
  3. Photovoltaic Cells: The heart of a solar panel lies in its photovoltaic cells, which are responsible for converting sunlight into electricity through the photovoltaic effect. These cells are typically made of semiconductor materials such as silicon, which possess the unique ability to generate an electric current when exposed to sunlight. The most common types of PV cells include monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and thin-film cells, each with its own advantages and efficiency levels.
  4. Backsheet or Substrate: Behind the photovoltaic cells, there is usually a backsheet or substrate layer that provides structural support and electrical insulation. The backsheet protects the underside of the solar panel from moisture and other environmental factors, helping to maintain the integrity of the electrical connections and prevent electrical hazards. Additionally, the backsheet reflects sunlight back towards the photovoltaic cells, further enhancing their efficiency.
  5. Encapsulant: Finally, a layer of encapsulant material is applied to the backsheet side of the solar panel to seal and protect the photovoltaic cells from moisture, humidity, and mechanical stress. Typically made of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) or similar materials, the encapsulant ensures that the photovoltaic cells remain securely in place and maintain proper electrical connections. By encapsulating the cells, solar panel manufacturers can enhance the durability and reliability of their products, extending their lifespan and performance in various environmental conditions.