1. Protons: Positively charged particles found in the nucleus of an atom. They have a relative mass of approximately 1 atomic mass unit (amu).
  2. Neutrons: Particles with no electrical charge (neutral) found in the nucleus of an atom. They also have a relative mass of approximately 1 amu.
  3. Electrons: Negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom in electron shells or energy levels. They have a much smaller mass compared to protons and neutrons.

Besides these fundamental particles, there are also other subatomic particles, such as quarks (which make up protons and neutrons), leptons (like electrons), and bosons (mediators of fundamental forces). Understanding subatomic particles is crucial in comprehending the structure and behavior of matter at its most fundamental level.

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