1. Thermal Aging: Over time, insulation materials can degrade due to exposure to high temperatures, leading to loss of mechanical strength, increased brittleness, and reduced dielectric properties.
  2. Electrical Stress: High electrical stresses can cause insulation breakdown, partial discharge, or tracking, leading to insulation failure and short circuits within the generator.
  3. Mechanical Stress: Mechanical stresses from vibrations, thermal cycling, or improper handling can lead to insulation cracking, delamination, or disbonding, compromising insulation integrity and reliability.
  4. Moisture Ingress: Moisture ingress can occur due to environmental conditions or inadequate sealing, leading to insulation degradation, reduced dielectric strength, and increased risk of electrical faults.
  5. Chemical Contamination: Exposure to oils, fuels, solvents, or other contaminants can cause chemical degradation of insulation materials, leading to loss of mechanical and electrical properties.
  6. Corona Discharge: Corona discharge can occur at high-voltage points within the generator, causing localized insulation degradation, ozone formation, and carbonization, leading to insulation breakdown and reliability issues.
  7. Surface Erosion: Surface erosion due to arcing, corona discharge, or abrasive particles can degrade insulation materials, leading to reduced insulation thickness, increased leakage currents, and insulation failure.
  8. Electrical Overload: Overloading conditions can cause excessive heating and thermal stress in insulation materials, leading to insulation breakdown, thermal degradation, and insulation failure.
  9. Environmental Factors: Exposure to environmental factors such as UV radiation, humidity, temperature extremes, and chemical pollutants can accelerate insulation degradation and compromise reliability.
  10. Manufacturing Defects: Defects in insulation materials, such as voids, air pockets, or impurities, can weaken insulation integrity and lead to premature insulation failure during operation.