Macular degeneration is a progressive eye condition that affects the macula, the central portion of the retina responsible for sharp, central vision. It is one of the leading causes of vision loss, particularly in older adults. Macular degeneration occurs when the macula deteriorates over time, leading to a loss of visual acuity and distortion of central vision. There are two main types of macular degeneration: dry macular degeneration and wet macular degeneration. Dry macular degeneration is the most common form and occurs when the macula thins and breaks down, resulting in the formation of small yellow deposits called drusen. While dry macular degeneration typically progresses slowly and may cause gradual vision loss, wet macular degeneration is characterized by the growth of abnormal blood vessels beneath the macula, which can leak fluid and blood, leading to rapid and severe vision loss if left untreated. While the exact cause of macular degeneration is not fully understood, several risk factors have been identified, including age, genetics, smoking, obesity, and exposure to UV light. Currently, there is no cure for macular degeneration, but treatments such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections, photodynamic therapy, and laser therapy can help slow the progression of the disease and preserve remaining vision, particularly in cases of wet macular degeneration. Early detection and timely intervention are crucial in managing macular degeneration and minimizing vision loss. Regular eye examinations are essential for monitoring changes in vision and identifying signs of macular degeneration, allowing for prompt treatment and preservation of visual function. By raising awareness of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for macular degeneration, individuals can take proactive steps to protect their vision and maintain optimal eye health.