Air pollution in Dhaka poses significant health risks to its residents due to the high levels of pollutants in the air. Particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are among the pollutants found in abundance, leading to various adverse health effects. Exposure to these pollutants has been linked to respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Children, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing health conditions are particularly vulnerable, as their respiratory systems may be more sensitive to the harmful effects of air pollution.

The air quality in Dhaka often exceeds the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended guidelines, with pollutant levels far above safe limits. High levels of PM2.5, fine particles with diameters of 2.5 micrometers or smaller, are of particular concern as they can penetrate deep into the lungs and enter the bloodstream, causing cardiovascular problems and exacerbating existing health conditions. Additionally, pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can worsen respiratory symptoms and increase the risk of respiratory infections.

Despite efforts to improve air quality, Dhaka continues to face challenges in controlling pollution levels due to rapid urbanization, industrial growth, and increasing vehicular emissions. The city’s dense population and heavy traffic congestion contribute to the persistence of poor air quality, posing a serious threat to public health. Urgent measures are needed to mitigate air pollution in Dhaka, including stricter regulations on industrial emissions, promotion of cleaner transportation options, implementation of green initiatives, and public awareness campaigns to educate the population about the health risks associated with air pollution. Only through concerted efforts can Dhaka hope to safeguard the health and well-being of its residents and mitigate the adverse impacts of air pollution on public health.