Glaucoma is a progressive eye condition characterized by damage to the optic nerve, often caused by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). This damage can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated, making early detection and management crucial. There are several types of glaucoma, including open-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, and normal-tension glaucoma, each with its own underlying mechanisms and risk factors. Open-angle glaucoma, the most common form, typically develops slowly over time and may not cause noticeable symptoms until significant vision loss has occurred. Angle-closure glaucoma, on the other hand, can develop suddenly and cause severe symptoms such as eye pain, headaches, blurred vision, and nausea. While the exact cause of glaucoma remains unknown, several risk factors have been identified, including age, family history, ethnicity, high intraocular pressure, thin corneas, and certain medical conditions like diabetes and hypertension. Treatment for glaucoma aims to lower intraocular pressure and prevent further damage to the optic nerve. This may involve medications such as eye drops, laser therapy, or surgical procedures to improve fluid drainage from the eye. Regular monitoring and follow-up care are essential to manage glaucoma effectively and preserve vision over time. By raising awareness, promoting early detection, and collaborating with eye care professionals, individuals can take proactive steps to reduce the risk of vision loss from glaucoma and maintain optimal eye health.