Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic renal failure, is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function over time. This condition develops gradually, often over months or years, and can lead to permanent kidney damage and impaired kidney function. Chronic kidney failure is typically caused by underlying health conditions that damage the kidneys’ filtering units (glomeruli) and tubules, leading to the gradual loss of kidney function. Common causes of chronic kidney failure include diabetes, high blood pressure, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and autoimmune diseases such as lupus. Symptoms of chronic kidney failure may not be apparent in the early stages but can include fatigue, weakness, swelling (edema) in the legs, feet, or face, decreased urine output, difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, and confusion as the condition progresses.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure focuses on managing symptoms, slowing the progression of the disease, and preventing complications. This may involve lifestyle modifications such as following a kidney-friendly diet low in sodium, phosphorus, and potassium, controlling blood pressure and blood sugar levels, quitting smoking, and exercising regularly. Medications may also be prescribed to manage symptoms such as high blood pressure, anemia, and bone disease, and to treat underlying conditions contributing to kidney damage. In advanced cases of chronic kidney failure, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to replace the lost kidney function and maintain the body’s internal balance of fluids and electrolytes. Early detection and management of chronic kidney failure are essential for preserving kidney function, preventing complications, and improving quality of life. Regular medical check-ups and monitoring of kidney function are important for individuals at risk of or living with chronic kidney failure.