Acute kidney failure, also known as acute renal failure, is a sudden and severe loss of kidney function. This condition develops rapidly over a few hours or days and can lead to dangerous levels of waste products accumulating in the body. Acute kidney failure can be caused by various factors, including severe dehydration, sudden drop in blood flow to the kidneys (shock), urinary tract obstruction, infection, medication toxicity, or direct damage to the kidneys.

Symptoms of acute kidney failure may include decreased urine output, fluid retention, swelling in the legs or other parts of the body, shortness of breath, fatigue, confusion, nausea, and chest pain. Treatment for acute kidney failure aims to address the underlying cause, support kidney function, and prevent complications. This may involve intravenous fluids to restore hydration and improve blood flow to the kidneys, medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications, and dialysis to remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so adequately. Prompt medical attention is essential for diagnosing and treating acute kidney failure to prevent further kidney damage and improve outcomes.